The Politics of Art: Elia Kazan and the Scandal
Over On the Waterfront
By Daidria Curnutte
is an artist and writer. She has studied at The School of the
Art Institute of Chicago and The Cincinnati Art Academy. She is
currently pursuing a degree in Art Therapy at Capital University,
in Columbus, Ohio.
"Anybody who informs on other people is doing something
disturbing and even disgusting. It doesn't sit well on anybody's
conscience. But at that time I felt a certain way, and I think
it has to be judged from the perspective of 1952." - Elia
The climate of paranoia that existed in Hollywood in the early
1950s had reached an almost frenzied point by the time of legendary
Elia Kazan's damaging testimony against fellow filmmakers who
had "named names". At that time, America was in the
midst of heightened Communist awareness. The Communist Party had
infiltrated certain sectors of the Hollywood community, and the
general public, along with the United States government, were
paralyzed with fear of the Red. The Cold War was being fought
every day on domestic turf and suddenly Hollywood's elite found
themselves at the center of the Communist controversy.
Senator Joseph McCarthy was at the helm of a new federal entity
called the House Un-American Activities Committee, an organization
charged with weeding out those who were sympathetic to the Communist
Party. Through his affiliation with the Communist Party (which,
by the time of the HUAC's reign of power, was really cursory at
best), Kazan was called before the HUAC and required to name anyone
that he knew of that also had Communist affiliations. That he
did so, seemingly without hesitation, is something that has become,
not only the stuff of Hollywood canon, but also a point of contention
amongst stars, filmmakers and critics alike, especially those
who have trouble separating the man from the artist.
In 1954, Kazan released what was probably the crowning achievement
in his cinematic career, the working-class message film On
the Waterfront. The story of an average Joe, a palooka who
rises above his athletic failures to become a leader of a worker's
union after ratting out the Mafia strong-arms that control it,
On the Waterfront was immediately viewed as an underhanded attempt
by Kazan to make excuses for his testimony to the HUAC, "an
apologia for a stool pigeon". (2) It's a comparison
that warrants not only the focus that it attained, but a revisitation
after years of history have put it out of the public consciousness.
On the Waterfront is an unabashedly political picture,
less a meditation than an outright battle cry. Terry Malloy (Marlon
Brando) is a has-been boxer who has fallen in with a tough crowd
of local thugs. The boss of the gang, Johnny Friendly (Lee J.
Cobb) is an affable enough leader, one who manipulates Terry into
service. In addition, Terry's brother, Charlie (Rod Steiger) has
finagled a cozy position for himself, using Terry's gullibility
as a trump card (Terry regularly threw fights to earn Johnny and
Charlie "short-end" money).
Adding to the mix are a headstrong priest (Karl Malden) who is
hell-bent on breaking up the Mafia control and Edie (Eva Marie
Saint), the sister of a recently murdered street kid who is stubbornly
remaining in town until she finds out who her brother's killer
is. Kazan sets all of these characters up as mechanisms by which
Terry will learn how to take control of his life back and do whatever
is necessary to get back his dignity.
The context in which this film takes place is worth noting. The
HUAC was not merely an anti-Communist organization. It was, in
effect, an anti-liberal organization, one that took advantage
of public fears and capitalized on them. While supposedly aimed
at ending Communism in America, it essentially became a kind of
social dictatorship, "forcing people to do things they did
not want to do, controlling their thoughts". (3)
Kazan was a part of a dignified group of motion picture and theater
actors and directors. His peers included Clifford Odets, Tennessee
Williams, Arthur Miller, and Lee Strasberg. He staged the most
legendary performances of Williams' seminal work, A Streetcar
Named Desire, and then brought the play to screen as an Oscar-winning
production. Kazan, while embroiled in the turmoil of the HUAC
mess, was a filmmaker in peak form, producing some of the most
challenging, technically superior studio films in Hollywood history.
The testimony itself has passed by the wayside. Most know nothing
of its content. In fact, Kazan's contribution was essentially
negligible. The four people he named were widely known to be members
of the Communist Party. It's almost surprising that the HUAC was
satisfied with his "outing" of known Communist sympathizers.
Even more surprising is the fact that Kazan openly informed them
that he was going to name them, in advance of his testimony.
them beforehand. I told Clifford Odets.
He said he was going to do the same thing. I told Mrs. Strasberg,
I told another guy
I was open to that extent about it.
I didn't duck it". (4)
There were accusations that Kazan testified for money. In fact,
after his testimony, his directing fees were cut in half. He gained
nothing from his testimony, except the freedom to make films in
the ways which he saw fit, as the studios no longer backed him
as supportively as they had before his reputation had been tarnished.
So Kazan resigned himself to starting over, in a sense. After
Arthur Miller backed out of a project that the two of them had
been working on about life on the New York waterfront, (due to
Kazan's testimony), Kazan contacted a fellow testifier, Budd Schulberg
. (5) On the Waterfront, as closely as it resembles
(albeit symbolically) Kazan's situation, was actually based on
a script that Budd Schulberg had been working on, "based
on a prize-winning newspaper series describing how the Mafia took
a bite out of every piece of cargo moving in and out of the ports
of New York and New Jersey" . (6) Kazan decided to
shoot the picture on location and took to the waterfront with
his talented cast and a mob of labor union extras for authenticity.
Brando, who considers Kazan a good friend, spoke about his feelings
about taking the part of Terry in the film:
The part I would play was that of Terry Malloy [
was reluctant to take the part because I was conflicted about
what Gadg had done and knew some of the people who had been
deeply hurt. It was especially stupid because most of the people
named were no longer Communists. [
] Gadg had to justify
what he had done and gave the appearance of sincerely believing
that there was a serious threat to America's freedoms. [
I finally decided to do the film, but what I didn't realize
then was that On the Waterfront was really a metaphorical argument
by Gadg and Budd Schulberg: they made the film to justify finking
on their friends. Evidently, as Terry Malloy I represented the
spirit of the brave,courageous man who defied evil. Neither
Gadg nor Budd Schulberg ever had second thoughts about testifying
before that committee. (7)
Still, On the Waterfront's inherent apologetic tone suggests
that something more snuck into the narrative after Kazan's HUAC
experience. In fact, Kazan has never actually denied the correlation,
though he does make light of it.
when people said there are some parallels to what I
had done, I couldn't and wouldn't deny it. It does have some
parallels. But I wasn't concerned with them nor did I play on
them. They were not my reason for making the film. I had wanted
to do a picture about the waterfront long before any of the
HUAC business came up. (8)
But is this really an adequate explanation? For anything resembling
an answer, the film's tone must be addressed.
On the Waterfront is, to be sure, a sensational work. Brando's
performance is one of the finest in film history. His "I
could' a been a contender" speech is one of the most quoted
lines in the American film lexicon. But there's something to be
said about its message, that of the underdog taking on the big,
bad conglomerate, though in this case it's a crime syndicate.
The film contains numerous scenes of dock workers stammering about,
fighting over work tokens, and collecting their shabby wages.
Terry, comfortable as the brother of the boss' right hand man,
is able to lounge around, not really working much, and collecting
the same wage as everyone else.
But Terry has become caught up in a shady murder, that of an amicable
kid named Joey. Though Terry was merely a decoy in a more elaborate
plot, his guilt over the role he played in the murder has clouded
his life with doubt. As he grows close to Edie, Terry begins to
wrestle with the knowledge he has about the ways the syndicate
runs the union and covers up its criminal, often violent, methods
of doing business. When Federal agents approach him, he must make
a choice: turn witness and rat out the scum, or keep quiet and
maintain his street credibility. Early on, Terry's gentility is
made clear. He keeps pigeons on the roof of his tenement building.
He is physically pained by what he knows. The outcome of his decision
is not what is in question, really. What is the bigger question,
the one that Kazan obviously had to come to terms with, is what
effect Terry's actions would have. In fact, his fellow workers,
the very people that he was sticking up for, shun Terry. His brother
is murdered for failing to prevent Terry's testimony. Finally,
Terry decides to confront Johnny Friendly alone, suffering a brutal
beating at the hands of Friendly's thugs, but gaining the support
of his co-workers back. Having finally overcome Friendly as a
unified front, Terry and company march back into the factory to
Kazan's decision to make Terry the defacto martyr, savior and
hero belies his need to make amends with his actions. All his
protesting aside, On the Waterfront is, without a doubt,
a film that promotes forgiveness and atonement. Many have argued
that Terry is let off too easy, that Kazan made a film compromised
by his own political and social agenda.
The picture was criticized by a lot of people - especially
the ending. People thought I made the Brando character into
a Jesus figure, leading the workers back to work. Lindsay Anderson,
the English critic turned director, thought it was a Fascist
picture. Schulberg didn't like my ending either. He thought
it would be better if Terry were killed. (9)
Indeed, despite the film's eventual acclaim, winning the Oscar
for Best Picture and several other accolades, On the Waterfront
remains a controversial work and Kazan a filmmaker that continues
to infuriate Hollywood and the public.
When he received an honorary Oscar for lifetime achievement, the
Hollywood audience was split into two camps: those who valued
the man and his artistic contributions and those who reviled his
Ultimately, On the Waterfront is no easier to pigeonhole
than is Kazan himself. Despite its undercurrent of apologia, the
film remains an amazing work of art and a prime example of what
can be wrought from artistic zeal and political fervor. To be
sure, the debate will continue, but it can no longer be questioned:
On the Waterfront is an important film, both in its cinematic
context and its socio-political leanings, one that will be studied
and argued over for years to come.
1. Jeff Young, Kazan: The Master Director Discusses His Films.
(New York: New Market Press, 1999), p. 118.
2. Young, 117.
3. Michel Ciment, Kazan on Kazan (New York: Viking Press,
1974), p. 83.
4. Young, 119.
5. Marlon Brando with Robert Lindsey, Brando: Songs My Mother
Taught Me (New York: Random House, 1994), p. 194.
6. Brando, 194.
7. Brando, 195. "Gadg" is a nickname that Brando uses
in reference to Kazan.
8. Young, 118.
9. Ciment, 106.
|On the Waterfront